IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1110: Interactions of Genes and Sodium Intake on the Development of Hypertension: A Cohort-Based Case-Control Study (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T (rs5443) and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period. The determinants of hypertension were three genotypes of SNP in GNB3 (TT; CT; and CC) and two dietary salt categories on the basis of the level of sodium consumption representing high (>4800 mg/day) and low-sodium (<2400 mg/day) diets. The development of hypertension increased with participants carrying TT genotype and high-sodium diets comparing with those carrying TC or CC genotype with low-sodium diets (adjusted OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.52–6.83) (Rothman synergy index = 3.79). The study suggests that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may influence the response of the renin-angiotensin system to high-sodium diet. It implies that GNB3 can be served as an easy, inexpensive, and early genetic marker of salt sensitivity to blood pressure. Salt-sensitive individuals should pay more attention to salt intake to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.