Novel sensitive, rapid and economical biosensors are being developed in a wide range of medical environmental and food applications. In this paper, we review some of the main advances in the field over the past few years by discussing recent studies from literature. A biosensor, which is defined as an analytical device consisting of a biomolecule, a transducer and an output system, can be categorized according to the type of the incorporated biomolecule. The biomolecules can be enzymes, antibodies, ssDNA, organelles, cells etc. The main biosensor categories classified according to the biomolecules are enzymatic biosensors, immunosensors and DNA-based biosensors. These sensors can measure analytes produced or reduced during reactions at lower costs compared to the conventional detection techniques. Numerous types of biosensor studies conducted over the last decade have been explored here to reveal their key applications in medical, environmental and food industries which provide comprehensive perspective to the readers. Overviews of the working principles and applications of the reviewed sensors are also summarized.