Measurement systems for online nondestructive full-field three-dimensional (3D) displacement based on the single-shot and multiplexing techniques attract more and more interest, especially throughout the manufacturing industries. This paper proposes an accurate and easy-to-implement method based on an electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) with single illumination-detection path to realize the online nondestructive full-field 3D displacement measurement. The simple and compact optical system generates three different sensitivity vectors to enable the evaluation of the three orthogonal displacement components. By applying the spatial carrier phase-shifting technique, the desired information can be obtained in real time. The theoretical analysis and the measurement results have proven the feasibility of this ESPI system and quantified its relative measurement error.