Image segmentation is an important process and a prerequisite for object-based image analysis. Thus, evaluating the performance of segmentation algorithms is essential to identify effective segmentation methods and to optimize the scale. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised evaluation (UE) method using the area-weighted variance (WV) and Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance to compare two image partitions to evaluate segmentation quality. The two measures were calculated based on the local measure criteria, and the JM distance was improved by considering the contribution of the common border between adjacent segments and the area of each segment in the JM distance formula, which makes the heterogeneity measure more effective and objective. Then the two measures were presented as a curve when changing the scale from 8 to 20, which can reflect the segmentation quality in both over- and under-segmentation. Furthermore, the WV and JM distance measures were combined by using three different strategies. The effectiveness of the combined indicators was illustrated through supervised evaluation (SE) methods to clearly reveal the segmentation quality and capture the trade-off between the two measures. In these experiments, the multiresolution segmentation (MRS) method was adopted for evaluation. The proposed UE method was compared with two existing UE methods to further confirm their capabilities. The visual and quantitative SE results demonstrated that the proposed UE method can improve the segmentation quality.