In this paper, a new adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) design strategy is proposed for the control of a special class of three-dimensional fractional order chaotic systems with uncertainties and external disturbance. The design methodology is developed in two stages: first, an adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed for the class of fractional order chaotic systems without uncertainties, and then a fuzzy logic system is used to estimate the control compensation effort to be added in the case of uncertainties on the system’s model. Based on the Lyapunov theory, the stability analysis of both control laws is provided with elimination of the chattering action in the control signal. The developed control scheme is simple to implement and the overall control scheme guarantees the global asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense if all the involved signals are uniformly bounded. In the present work, simulation studies on fractional-order Chen chaotic systems are carried out to show the efficiency of the proposed fractional adaptive controllers.