Although green innovation strategy (GIS) is the driving force for the sustainable development of enterprises, while the strategy is implemented, an increased cost and a change in organizational routines will cause an organization to become fragile, and even affect the sustainable competitive advantages. So, the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact path of GIS on sustainable competitive advantages and the implementation boundary of GIS. To explain the impact path, we consider the concept of dynamic capabilities to be the mediator variable. To explain the implementation boundary of GIS, we systematically explore the relationships among GIS, dynamic capabilities and sustainable competitive advantages under different levels of environmental uncertainty. Based on 241 new Chinese green firms, the empirical results find that GIS helps enterprises to gain sustainable competitive advantages. However, in the process of strategy implementation, enterprises should choose appropriate methods according to different degrees of environmental uncertainty. In a low environmental uncertainty, dynamic capabilities play a full intermediary role between GIS and sustainable competitive advantages. However, in a high environmental uncertainty, dynamic capabilities have no mediating effect between GIS and sustainable competitive advantages. This study not only integrates green management theory and strategic management theory but also makes up for the deficiencies in research on these theories and has important reference value for enterprises that seek to carry out green innovation activities.