The harvest techniques and the employed machines are important factors in reducing soil loss due to root crop harvesting. Furthermore, the deviation of the working organs of the self-propelled sugar root harvesting machines from the axis of the row also leads to significant losses and damage to sugar beetroots. Therefore, the self-propelled machine units must move in a horizontal plane with a high degree of accuracy. The purpose of this study is to increase the efficiency of the self-propelled harvester by analyzing its plane-parallel motion and evaluating its constructive and kinematic parameters. In order to determine the influence of these parameters on the plane-parallel motion of the self-propelled root harvesting machine, its mathematical model has been calculated. Furthermore, experimental tests were executed in order to evaluate the degree of damage to sugar beetroot crops during their digging, depending on the magnitude of the deviations of the center of the digging tool. The results of this trials highlighted that if the crop row deviates from the conventional axis line by 10 mm, the root crop damage exceeds is 21.7% and at deviations by 70 mm, the damage exceeds 67%. The theoretical study of the trajectory of the center of the outside digging tool and the experimental evaluation of its work (in terms of the quality of harvesting with deviations in its trajectory of motion) formally confirm the coincidence of all the studies—both theoretical and experimental. The use of the model of the plane-parallel movement of the self-propelled root harvesting machine then improves the quality parameters of the technological process.