As one of the earliest domesticated species, Cucurbita pepo (including squash and pumpkin) is rich in phenotypic polymorphism and has huge economic value. In this research, using 1660 expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and 632 genomic simple sequence repeats (gSSRs), we constructed the highest-density EST-SSR-based genetic map in Cucurbita genus, which spanned 2199.1 cM in total and harbored 623 loci distributed in 20 linkage groups. Using this map as a bridge, the two previous gSSR maps were integrated by common gSSRs and the corresponding relationships around chromosomes in three sets of genomes were also collated. Meanwhile, one large segmental inversion that existed between our map and the C. pepo genome was detected. Furthermore, three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) of the dwarf trait (gibberellin-sensitive dwarf type) in C. pepo were located, and the candidate region that covered the major QTL spanned 1.39 Mb, which harbored a predicted gibberellin 2-?-oxidase gene. Considering the rich phenotypic polymorphism, the important economic value in the Cucurbita genus species and several advantages of the SSR marker were identified; thus, this high-density EST-SSR-based genetic map will be useful in Pumpkin and Squash breeding work in the future.