This work shows the feasibility of calibrating an industrial robot arm through an automated procedure using a new, low-cost, wireless measuring device mounted on the robot’s flange. The device consists of three digital indicators that are fixed orthogonally to each other on an aluminum support. Each indicator has a measuring accuracy of 3 µm. The measuring instrument uses a kinematic coupling platform which allows for the definition of an accurate and repeatable tool center point (TCP). The idea behind the calibration method is for the robot to bring automatically this TCP to three precisely-known positions (the centers of three precision balls fixed with respect to the robot’s base) and with different orientations of the robot’s end-effector. The self-calibration method was tested on a small six-axis industrial robot, the ABB IRB 120 (Vasteras, Sweden). The robot was modeled by including all its geometrical parameters and the compliance of its joints. The parameters of the model were identified using linear regression with the least-square method. Finally, the performance of the calibration was validated with a laser tracker. This validation showed that the mean and the maximum absolute position errors were reduced from 2.628 mm and 6.282 mm to 0.208 mm and 0.482 mm, respectively.