Finding out interested targets from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is an attractive but challenging problem in SAR application. Traditional target detection is independent on SAR imaging process, which is purposeless and unnecessary. Hence, a new SAR processing approach for simultaneous target detection and image formation is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on SAR imagery formation in time domain and human visual saliency detection. First, a series of sub-aperture SAR images with resolutions from low to high are generated by the time domain SAR imaging method. Then, those multiresolution SAR images are detected by the visual saliency processing, and the corresponding intermediate saliency maps are obtained. The saliency maps are accumulated until the result with a sufficient confidence level. After some screening operations, the target regions on the imaging scene are located, and only these regions are focused with full aperture integration. Finally, we can get the SAR imagery with high-resolution detected target regions but low-resolution clutter background. Experimental results have shown the superiority of the proposed approach for simultaneous target detection and image formation.