Recent developments in defining the role of the lentiviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) cytoplasmic tail (CT) in Env trafficking and incorporation into virus particles have advanced our understanding of viral replication and transmission. To stimulate additional progress in this field, the two-day International Workshop on Structure and Function of the Lentiviral gp41 Cytoplasmic Tail, co-organized by Eric Freed and James Hoxie, was held at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD (26–27 April 2018). The meeting served to bring together experts focused on the role of gp41 in HIV replication and to discuss the emerging mechanisms of CT-dependent trafficking, Env conformation and structure, host protein interaction, incorporation, and viral transmission. The conference was organized around the following three main hot topics in gp41 research: the role of host factors in CT-dependent Env incorporation, Env structure, and CT-mediated trafficking and transmission. This review highlights important topics and the advances in gp41 research that were discussed during the conference.