Titanium biomaterials’ response has been recognized to be affected by particles size, crystal structure, and surface properties. Chemical and structural properties of these nanoparticle materials are important, but their size is the key aspect. The aim of this study is the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by the sol-gel method, which is an ideal technique to prepare nanomaterials at low temperature. The heat treatment can affect the structure of the final product and consequently its biological properties. For this reason, the chemical structure of the TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized was investigated after each heat treatment, in order to evaluate the presence of different phases formed among the nanoparticles. FTIR spectroscopy and XRD have been used to evaluate the different structures. The results of these analyses suggest that an increase of the calcination temperature induces the formation of mixed-crystalline-phases with different content of anatase and rutile phases. The results obtained by SEM measurements suggest that an increase in the particles size accompanied by a noticeable aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles is due to high temperatures achieved during the thermal treatments and confirmed the presence of different content of the two crystalline phases of titanium dioxide.