A three-dimensional inverse design of a low specific speed turbine is studied, and a set of design criteria for low specific speed turbine runner is proposed, including blade loading distributions and blade lean angles. The characteristics of the loading parameters for low specific speed turbine runner are summarized by analyzing the suction performance of different loading positions, loading slopes and blade lean angles based on the orthogonal experiment design and range analysis. It is found that the blade loading distribution at the band plays a more important role than it does at the crown and it should be fore loaded for both band and crown. The blade lean angle at the blade leading edge should be negative. Then, the blade is optimized through the inverse method by fixing blade lean angle, based on the response surface method. After seeking the optimal value of the response surface function, the optimal result of the design parameters is obtained, which is in conformity with the design criteria and verifies the rationality of the established design criteria for low specific speed turbine.