Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is a major biotic constraint to wheat production worldwide. Disease resistant cultivars are a sustainable means for the efficient control of this disease. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to stem rust at the seedling stage, an association mapping panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions were evaluated for reaction to five Pgt races under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel in response to all of the races, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTLs in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Twenty-two resistance QTLs were identified, which were characterized by at least two marker-trait associations. Most of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes/QTLs; however, six regions detected on chromosomes 1B, 5A, 5B, 6B, and 7B may be novel. Availability of the reference genome sequence of wild emmer wheat accession Zavitan facilitated the search for candidate resistance genes in the regions where QTLs were identified, and many of them were annotated as NOD (nucleotide binding oligomerization domain)-like receptor (NLR) genes or genes related to broad spectrum resistance.