Marine Drugs, Vol. 16, Pages 494: Fatty Acid Composition and Thermotropic Behavior of Glycolipids and Other Membrane Lipids of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Inhabiting Different Climatic Zones (Marine Drugs)
Increasing global temperatures are expected to increase the risk of extinction of various species due to acceleration in the pace of shifting climate zones. Nevertheless, there is no information on the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids that enable the adaptation of the algae to different climatic zones. The present work aimed to compare fatty acid composition and thermal transitions of membrane lipids from green macroalgae Ulva lactuca harvested in the Sea of Japan and the Adriatic Sea in summer. U. lactuca inhabiting the Adriatic Sea had bleached parts of thalli which were completely devoid of chloroplast glycolipids. The adaptation to a warmer climatic zone was also accompanied by a significant decrease in the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of membrane lipids, especially in bleached thalli. Hence, bleaching of algae is probably associated with the significant decrease of the UFA/SFA ratio in glycolipids. The decreasing ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in extra-plastidial lipids and only in the major glycolipid, non-lamellar monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The opposite thermotropic behavior of non-lamellar and lamellar glycolipids can contribute to maintenance of the highly dynamic structure of thylakoid membranes of algae in response to the increasing temperatures of climatic zones.