Dendrobium is a traditional Chinese herb with anti-diabetic effects and has diverse bibenzyls as well as phenanthrenes. Little is known about Dendrobium polyphenols anti-diabetic activities, so, a rich-polyphenols extract of D. loddigesii (DJP) was used for treatment of diabetic db/db mice; the serum biochemical index and tissue appearance were evaluated. In order to gain an insight into the anti-diabetic mechanism, the oxidative stress index, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gut microbiota modulation were determined by ELISA, immunohistochemistry or high throughput sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that DJP had the effects to decrease the blood glucose, body weight, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and increase insulin (INS) level in the mice. DJP improved the mice fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy. DJP showed the anti-oxidative abilities to reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increase the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione (GSH). DJP exerted the anti-inflammatory effects of decreasing expression of IL-6 and TNF-?. After treatment of DJP, the intestinal flora balance of the mice was ameliorated, increasing Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratios as well as the relative abundance of Prevotella/Akkermansia and reducing the relative abundance of S24-7/Rikenella/Escherichia coli. The function`s prediction of gut microbiota indicated that the microbial compositions involved carbohydrate metabolism or lipid metabolism were changed. This study revealed for the first time that DJP improves the mice symptoms of diabetes and complications, which might be due to the effects that DJP induced the decrease of inflammation as well as oxidative stress and improvement of intestinal flora balance.