A novel sesquiterpene dimer, spirocommiphorfuran A (1); two new cadinane sesquiterpenoids, commiphorenes A (2) and B (3); along with three known terpenoids (4–6), were isolated from Resina Commiphora. The structures of these new compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESIMS, quantum chemical computation, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 features a 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-ene core, representing the first example of germacrane-type sesquiterpene dimer fused via a spiro ring system. Compound 2 is a novel sesquiterpene with a completely new carbon skeleton, which is characteristic of an additional carbon attaching to the cadinane backbone via a carbon–carbon bond. Additionally, compounds 2 and 4 exert acceptable cytotoxicity toward normal cells and high selectivity in cancer cells, especially in HepG2 cells.