Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important diarrhea-causing pathogen and are regarded as a global threat for humans and farm animals. ETEC possess several virulence factors to infect its host, including colonization factors and enterotoxins. Production of heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) by most ETEC plays an essential role in triggering diarrhea and ETEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the heat-stable enterotoxins of ETEC strains from different species as well as the molecular mechanisms used by these heat-stable enterotoxins to trigger diarrhea. As recently described, intestinal epithelial cells are important modulators of the intestinal immune system. Thus, we also discuss the impact of the heat-stable enterotoxins on this role of the intestinal epithelium and how these enterotoxins might affect intestinal immune cells. Finally, the latest developments in vaccination strategies to protect against infections with ST secreting ETEC strains are discussed. This review might inform and guide future research on heat-stable enterotoxins to further unravel their molecular pathogenesis, as well as to accelerate vaccine design.