A novel turn-on fluorescence assay was developed for the rapid detection of glutathione (GSH) based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) and redox reaction. Molybdenum disulfide quantum dots (MoS2 QDs), which have stable fluorescent properties, were synthesized with hydrothermal method. Manganese dioxide nanosheets (MnO2 NSs) were prepared by exfoliating the bulk δ-MnO2 material in bovine serum albumin (BSA) aqueous solution. The morphology structures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Studies have shown that the fluorescence of MoS2 QDs could be quenched in the presence of MnO2 NSs as a result of the IFE, and is recovered after the addition of GSH to dissolve the MnO2 NSs. The fluorescence intensity showed a good linear relationship with the GSH concentration in the range 20–2500 μM, the limit of detection was 1.0 μM. The detection method was applied to the analysis of GSH in human serum samples. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective method has great potential in analyzing GSH and in disease diagnosis.