In this paper, we propose a phaseless terahertz coded-aperture imaging (PTCAI) method by using a single incoherent detector or an incoherent detection array. We at first analyze and model the system architecture, derive the matrix imaging equation, and then study the phase retrieval techniques to reconstruct the original target with high resolution. Numerical experiments are performed and the results show that the proposed method can significantly reduce the system complexity in the receiving process while maintaining high resolution imaging capability. Furthermore, the approach of using incoherent detection array instead of single detector is capable of decreasing the encoding and sampling times, and therefore helps to improve the imaging frame rate. In our future research, the method proposed in this paper will be experimentally tested and validated, and high-speed PTCAI at nearly real-time frame rates will be the main work.