In the literature, there are many image encryption algorithms that have been constructed based on different chaotic maps. However, those algorithms do well in the cryptographic process, but still, some developments need to be made in order to enhance the security level supported by them. This paper introduces a new cryptographic algorithm that depends on a logistic and two-dimensional chaotic economic map. The robustness of the introduced algorithm is shown by implementing it on several types of images. The implementation of the algorithm and its security are partially analyzed using some statistical analyses such as sensitivity to the key space, pixels correlation, the entropy process, and contrast analysis. The results given in this paper and the comparisons performed have led us to decide that the introduced algorithm is characterized by a large space of key security, sensitivity to the secret key, few coefficients of correlation, a high contrast, and accepted information of entropy. In addition, the results obtained in experiments show that our proposed algorithm resists statistical, differential, brute-force, and noise attacks.