Polyurethanes are widely used in the development of medical devices due to their biocompatibility, degradability, non-toxicity and chemical versatility. Polyurethanes were obtained from polyols derived from castor oil, and isophorone diisocyanate, with the incorporation of polycaprolactone-diol (15% w/w) and chitosan (3% w/w). The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the type of polyol and the incorporation of polycaprolactone-diol and chitosan on the mechanical and biological properties of the polyurethanes to identify the optimal ones for applications such as wound dressings or tissue engineering. Polyurethanes were characterized by stress-strain, contact angle by sessile drop method, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, water uptake and in vitro degradation by enzymatic processes. In vitro biological properties were evaluated by a 24 h cytotoxicity test using the colorimetric assay MTT and the LIVE/DEAD kit with cell line L-929 (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). In vitro evaluation of the possible inflammatory effect of polyurethane-based materials was evaluated by means of the expression of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines expressed in a cellular model such as THP-1 cells by means of the MILLIPLEX® MAP kit. The modification of polyols derived from castor oil increases the mechanical properties of interest for a wide range of applications. The polyurethanes evaluated did not generate a cytotoxic effect on the evaluated cell line. The assessed polyurethanes are suggested as possible candidate biomaterials for wound dressings due to their improved mechanical properties and biocompatibility.