In recent years, metabolic disorder, especially fatty liver disease, has been considered a major challenge to global health. The attention of researchers focused on expanding knowledge of the regulation mechanism behind these diseases and towards the new diagnostics tools and treatments. The pathophysiology of the fatty liver disease is undoubtedly complex. Abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation is a major symptom of most metabolic diseases. Therefore, the identification of novel regulation factors of lipid metabolism is important and meaningful. As a new diagnostic tool, the function of microRNAs during fatty liver disease has recently come into notice in biological research. Accumulating evidence supports the influence of miRNAs in lipid metabolism. In this review, we discuss the potential role of miRNAs in liver lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease.