The recombinant phage tail sheath protein, gp053, from Escherichia coli infecting myovirus vB_EcoM_FV3 (FV3) was able to self-assemble into long, ordered and extremely stable tubular structures (polysheaths) in the absence of other viral proteins. TEM observations revealed that those protein nanotubes varied in length (~10–1000 nm). Meanwhile, the width of the polysheaths (~28 nm) corresponded to the width of the contracted tail sheath of phage FV3. The formed protein nanotubes could withstand various extreme treatments including heating up to 100 °C and high concentrations of urea. To determine the shortest variant of gp053 capable of forming protein nanotubes, a set of N- or/and C-truncated as well as poly-His-tagged variants of gp053 were constructed. The TEM analysis of these mutants showed that up to 25 and 100 amino acid residues could be removed from the N and C termini, respectively, without disturbing the process of self-assembly. In addition, two to six copies of the gp053 encoding gene were fused into one open reading frame. All the constructed oligomers of gp053 self-assembled in vitro forming structures of different regularity. By using the modification of cysteines with biotin, the polysheaths were tested for exposed thiol groups. Polysheaths formed by the wild-type gp053 or its mutants possess physicochemical properties, which are very attractive for the construction of self-assembling nanostructures with potential applications in different fields of nanosciences.