High rates of environmental pollution by boilers and thermal power plants burning coal of different grades are the main reason for active research in the world aimed at the development of alternative fuels. The solution to the formulated problem acceptable in terms of environmental, technical and economic criteria is the creation of composite slurry fuels with the use of fine coal or coal processing and enrichment waste, water of different quality, and oil sludge additive. This study considers modern technologies of burning slurry fuels as well as perspective research methods of the corresponding processes. A model combustion chamber is developed for the adequate study of ignition processes. The calculation of the basic geometric dimensions is presented. The necessity of manufacturing the combustion chamber in the form of an object of complex geometry is substantiated. With its use, several typical modes of slurry fuel ignition are determined. Principal differences of ignition conditions of a single droplet and group of fuel droplets are shown. Typical vortex structures at the fuel spray injection are shown. A comparison with the trajectories of fuel aerosol droplets in real combustion chambers used for the combustion of slurry fuels is undertaken.