In this study, we prepared an injectable drug delivery depot system based on a visible light-cured glycol chitosan (GC) hydrogel containing paclitaxel (PTX)-complexed beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (GC/CD/PTX) for ovarian cancer (OC) therapy using a tumor-bearing mouse model. The hydrogel depot system had a 23.8 Pa of storage modulus at 100 rad/s after visible light irradiation for 10 s. In addition, GC was swollen as a function of time. However, GC had no degradation with the time change. Eventually, the swollen GC matrix affected the releases of PTX and CD/PTX. GC/PTX and GC/CD/PTX exhibited a controlled release of PTX for 7 days. In addition, GC/CD/PTX had a rapid PTX release for 7 days due to improved water solubility of PTX through CD/PTX complex. In vitro cell viability tests showed that GC/CD/PTX had a lower cell viability percentage than the free PTX solution and GC/PTX. Additionally, GC/CD/PTX resulted in a superior antitumor effect against OC. Consequently, we suggest that the GC/CD system might have clinical potential for OC therapy by improving the water solubility of PTX, as PTX is included into the cavity of β-CD.