A series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives was designed and synthesized by reaction of carboxylic acid hydrazide with isothiocyanates. The molecular structures of the investigated thiosemicarbazides were confirmed and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The conformational preference of carbonylthiosemicarbazide chain and intra- and intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state were characterized using X-ray analysis. The antituberculosis activity of the target compounds were tested in vitro against four Mycobacterium strains: M. H37Ra, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, M. timereck. The most active compounds were those with 2-pyridine ring. They exhibited lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range 7.81–31.25 μg/mL in comparison to the other isomers. Compound 5 had activity against M. smegmatis at a concentration of 7.81 μg/mL whereas compound 2 had activity against all tested strains at a concentration of 15.625 μg/mL. The molecular docking studies were performed for investigated compounds using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase MtGS as their molecular target.