Two types of pretreatment categories, namely microwave-assisted alkalization and microwave-assisted acid oxidation, were used to synthesize novel wheat straw adsorbents for the effective removal of Cd(II) in simulated waterlogged paddy soil. A systematic adsorption behavior study, including adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms was conducted. Results showed that wheat straw pretreated by microwave-assisted soaking of NaOH and ethanol solution obtained the highest Cd(II) removal efficiency of 96.4% at a reaction temperature of 25 °C, pH of 7.0, initial Cd(II) concentration of 50 mg/L, and adsorbent/adsorbate ratio of 10 g/L. Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to analyze the changes of different of Cd(II) in soil, the aim of which was to study the mobility of Cd(II) and then evaluate the toxicity that Cd(II) might bring to plants. A 60-day incubation was performed to investigate the dynamic variations of soil pH and dissolved organic carbon content over incubation time. Characterization analyses revealed the morphological changes of wheat straw adsorbents, which suggested that those pretreatment methods were of significance. This study provided an environmentally friendly way to reuse agricultural wastes and remedy Cd(II) contaminated soil.