Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have become a widely used nanomaterial due to the photocatalytic activity and absorption of ultraviolet light of specific wavelengths. This study investigated the toxic effects of rutile TiO2 NPs on zebrafish by examining its embryos and adults. In the embryo acute toxicity test, exposure to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs didn’t affect the hatching rate of zebrafish embryos, and there was no sign of deformity. In the adult toxicity test, the effects of TiO2 NPs on oxidative damage in liver, intestine and gill tissue were studied. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-based quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to detect the three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S transferase (GSTs) in the above mentioned zebrafish organs at protein and gene levels. The results showed that long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs can cause oxidative damage to organisms; and compared with the control group, the activity of the three kinds of enzyme declined somewhat at the protein level. In addition, long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs could cause high expression of CAT, SOD and GSTs in three organs of adult zebrafish in order to counter the adverse reaction. The effects of long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs to adult zebrafish were more obvious in the liver and gill.