MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a), a tumor suppressor, has been reported to be dysregulated in various human cancers. MiR-34a is involves in certain epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated signal pathways to repress tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. Due to the particularity of miR-34 family in tumor-associated EMT, the significance of miR-34a is being increasingly recognized. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) is a novel concept involving mRNA, circular RNA, pseudogene transcript, and long noncoding RNA regulating each other’s expressions using microRNA response elements to compete for the binding of microRNAs. Studies showed that miR-34a is efficient for cancer therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the function of miR-34a in tumor-associated EMT. ceRNA hypothesis plays an important role in miR-34a regulation in EMT, cancer progression, and metastasis. Its potential roles and challenges as a microRNA therapeutic candidate are discussed. As the negative effect on cancer progression, miR-34a should play crucial roles in clinical diagnosis and cancer therapy.