Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy balance playing an active role in lipid storage as well as in synthesizing several hormones directly involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Obesity represents a peculiar risk factor for a growing list of cancers and is frequently associated to poor clinical outcome. The mechanism linking obesity and cancer is not completely understood, but, amongst the major players, there are both chronic low-grade inflammation and deregulation of adipokines secretion. In obesity, the adipose tissue is pervaded by an abnormal number of immune cells that create an inflammatory environment supporting tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipokine, shows anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Circulating levels of APN are drastically decreased in obesity, suggesting that APN may represent the link factor between obesity and cancer risk. The present review describes the recent advances on the involvement of APN and its receptors in the etiology of different types of cancer.