Raphanus sativus (Radish) belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is a widely consumed root vegetable all around the world. The nutritional and medicinal values of radishes have been proven by several researches. Extracts prepared from the aerial and underground parts of radishes have been used in the treatment of stomach disorders, urinary infections, hepatic inflammation, cardiac disorders and ulcers in folk medicine since the ancient times. The pharmaceutical potential of radishes is attributed to the presence of its beneficial secondary metabolites, such as glucosinolates, polyphenols and isothiocyanates. The present review has focused on the impact of radish extract administration under pathological complications, such as cancer, diabetes, hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, a comprehensive view of molecular mechanism behind the regulation of molecular drug targets associated with different types of cancers and diabetes by the bioactive compounds present in the radish extracts have been discussed in detail.