In this study, cement-treated waste sand as a by-product material produced from Al-Ahsa quarries (Saudi Arabia) was experimentally tested and investigated as a base course material for the foundation of structures and roads. The study aimed to use the waste sand as a construction material by improving its strength, bearing capacity, and stiffness. The waste sand was mixed with different percentages of Portland cement content (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) at the maximum dry density and optimum water content of the standard Proctor compaction conditions of a non-treated sample. Unconfined compressive strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests for different curing times were conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser-scanning microscopy (LSM), and X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore the microstructure and composition of the treated sand. The results showed that the compressive strength, initial tangent modulus, and CBR of the treated sand increase with the increase in cement content and curing time. Furthermore, good correlations were established among the strength, initial tangent modulus, and CBR. Based on the obtained results, cement-stabilized waste sand is a potential material for use in construction. This is expected to save the environment and reduce the cost of road construction.