A bio-orthogonal and unnatural substance, such as an unnatural amino acid (Uaa), is an ideal regulator to control target gene expression in a synthetic gene circuit. Genetic code expansion technology has achieved Uaa incorporation into ribosomal synthesized proteins in vivo at specific sites designated by UAG stop codons. This site-specific Uaa incorporation can be used as a controller of target gene expression at the translational level by conditional read-through of internal UAG stop codons. Recent advances in optimization of site-specific Uaa incorporation for translational regulation have enabled more precise control over a wide range of novel important applications, such as Uaa-auxotrophy-based biological containment, live-attenuated vaccine, and high-yield zero-leakage expression systems, in which Uaa translational control is exclusively used as an essential genetic element. This review summarizes the history and recent advance of the translational control by conditional stop codon read-through, especially focusing on the methods using the site-specific Uaa incorporation.