Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. There is a global increase in the aging population, who may be at increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of cancer therapy or accidental exposure. Therefore, it is critical to delineate the factors that exacerbate age-related radiation sensitivity and neurocognitive decline. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is implicated with regulatory roles in neuroinflammation, learning, and memory, however its role in IR-induced neurocognitive decline and aging is not known. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of C/EBPδ in IR-induced neurocognitive decline in aged mice. We report that aged Cebpd−/− mice exposed to acute IR exposure display impairment in short-term memory and spatial memory that correlated with significant alterations in the morphology of neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 apical and basal regions. There were no significant changes in the expression of inflammatory markers. However, the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were altered post-IR in the hippocampus of aged Cebpd−/− mice. These results suggest that Cebpd may protect from IR-induced neurocognitive dysfunction by suppressing oxidative stress in aged mice.