In this paper, we used a Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) approach to find and genotype more than 4000 genome-wide SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from striped killifish exposed to a variety of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other aromatic pollutants in New Bedford Harbor (NBH, Massachusetts, USA). The aims of this study were to identify the genetic consequences of exposure to aquatic pollutants and detect genes that may be under selection. Low genetic diversity (HE and π) was found in the site exposed to the highest pollution level, but the pattern of genetic diversity did not match the pollution levels. Extensive connectivity was detected among sampling sites, which suggests that balanced gene flow may explain the lack of genetic variation in response to pollution levels. Tests for selection identified 539 candidate outliers, but many of the candidate outliers were not shared among tests. Differences among test results likely reflect different test assumptions and the complex pollutant mixture. Potentially, selectively important loci are associated with 151 SNPs, and enrichment analysis suggests a likely involvement of these genes with pollutants that occur in NBH. This result suggests that selective processes at genes targeted by pollutants may be occurring, even at a small geographical scale, and may allow the local striped killifish to resist the high pollution levels.