Homogeneous image change detection research has been well developed, and many methods have been proposed. However, change detection between heterogeneous images is challenging since heterogeneous images are in different domains. Therefore, direct heterogeneous image comparison in the way that we do it is difficult. In this paper, a method for heterogeneous synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image and optical image change detection is proposed, which is based on a pixel-level mapping method and a capsule network with a deep structure. The mapping method proposed transforms an image from one feature space to another feature space. Then, the images can be compared directly in a similarly transformed space. In the mapping process, some image blocks in unchanged areas are selected, and these blocks are only a small part of the image. Then, the weighted parameters are acquired by calculating the Euclidean distances between the pixel to be transformed and the pixels in these blocks. The Euclidean distance calculated according to the weighted coordinates is taken as the pixel gray value in another feature space. The other image is transformed in a similar manner. In the transformed feature space, these images are compared, and the fusion of the two different images is achieved. The two experimental images are input to a capsule network, which has a deep structure. The image fusion result is taken as the training labels. The training samples are selected according to the ratio of the center pixel label and its neighboring pixels’ labels. The capsule network can improve the detection result and suppress noise. Experiments on remote sensing datasets show the final detection results, and the proposed method obtains a satisfactory performance.