Scientific development has increased the awareness of water pollutant forms and has reawakened the need for its effective purification. Oxyanions are created by a variety of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids. These species are harmful to living matter due to their toxicity, nondegradibility, and mobility in aquatic environments. Among a variety of water treatment techniques, adsorption is one of the simplest, cheapest, and most effective. Since metal-oxide-based adsorbents poses a variety of functional groups onto their surface, they were widely applied in ions sorption. In this paper adsorption of harmful oxyanions by metal oxide-based materials according to literature survey was studied. Characteristic of oxyanions originating from As, V, B, W and Mo, their probable adsorption mechanisms and comparison of their sorption affinity for metal-oxide-based materials such as iron oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium dioxide, manganium dioxide, and various oxide minerals and their combinations are presented in this paper.