Poplar (Populus) is one of the most important woody plants worldwide. Drought, a primary abiotic stress, seriously affects poplar growth and development. Multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) genes—pivotal factors in the RNA editosome in Arabidopsis thaliana—are indispensable for the regulation of various physiological processes, including organelle C-to-U RNA editing and plasmid development, as well as in the response to stresses. Although the poplar genome sequence has been released, little is known about MORF genes in poplar, especially those involved in the response to drought stress at the genome-wide level. In this study, we identified nine MORF genes in the Populus genome. Based on the structural features of MORF proteins and the topology of the phylogenetic tree, the P. trichocarpa (Ptr) MORF family members were classified into six groups (Groups I–VI). A microsynteny analysis indicated that two (22.2%) PtrMORF genes were tandemly duplicated and seven genes (77.8%) were segmentally duplicated. Based on the dN/dS ratios, purifying selection likely played a major role in the evolution of this family and contributed to functional divergence among PtrMORF genes. Moreover, analysis of qRT-PCR data revealed that PtrMORFs exhibited tissue- and treatment-specific expression patterns. PtrMORF genes in all group were involved in the stress response. These results provide a solid foundation for further analyses of the functions and molecular evolution of MORF genes in poplar, and, in particular, for improving the drought resistance of poplar by genetics manipulation.