IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 1038: Assessing Spatial Accessibility to Hierarchical Urban Parks by Multi-Types of Travel Distance in Shenzhen, China (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Urban green spaces play a critical role in public health and human wellbeing for urban residents. Due to the uneven spatial distribution of urban green spaces in most of cities, the issue of the disparity between supply and demand has aroused public concern. In a case of Shenzhen, a modified Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method is adopted to evaluate the disparity between park provision and the demanders in terms of accessibility at hierarchical levels under four types of distance (e.g., Euclidean distance, walking distance, bicycling distance, and driving distance), which is well aligned with hierarchical systems in urban green spaces in urban planning practice. By contrast and correlation analysis, among the four types of distance, the statistical correlations are relatively high between Euclidean distance and the other three. Nonetheless, the pattern of spatial accessibility under different type of travel distance is apparently variant. Accessibility calculated by Euclidean distance is overestimated relative to that of the other three, while the pattern of walking distance and bicycling distance is similar to each other. The choice of type of distance is worthy of caution when evaluating spatial accessibility by 2SFCA method. Results show that the accessibility to parks at all hierarchical levels is high particularly, particularly at the natural level. However, the disparity between the supply and demand is significant. The percentage of communities that have high population density but low park accessibility is over 40% (equivalent to approximately 55% of the population). The finding may provide implications on access to urban greens paces for urban planners and authorities to develop effective planning strategies.