Luminescent carbon nanomaterials are important materials for sensing, imaging, and display technologies. This work describes the use of microwave heating for the template-assisted preparation of luminescent carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from the reaction of a range of beverage-related precursors with the nitrogen-rich polyethyleneimine. Highly luminescent robust carbon fibers that were 10 to 30 m in length and had a diameter of 200 nm were obtained under moderate conditions of temperature (250–260 °C) and a short reaction time (6 min). The high aspect ratio fibers showed wavelength-dependent emission that can be readily imaged using epifluorescence. The development of these multi-emissive one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanomaterials offers potential for a range of applications.