Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a valuable freshwater prawn in Asian aquaculture. In recent years, a new symptom that was generally called “white head” has caused high mortality in M. rosenbergii farms in China. Samples of M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, Procambarus clarkii, M. superbum, Penaeus vannamei, and Cladocera from a farm suffering from white head in Jiangsu Province were collected and analyzed in this study. Pathogen detection showed that all samples were positive for Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1). Histopathological examination revealed dark eosinophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue, hepatopancreas, and gills of M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense. Blue signals of in situ digoxigenin-labeled loop-mediated isothermal amplification appeared in hematopoietic tissue, hemocytes, hepatopancreatic sinus, and antennal gland. Transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections showed a large number of DIV1 particles with a mean diameter about 157.9 nm. The virogenic stromata and budding virions were observed in hematopoietic cells. Quantitative detection with TaqMan probe based real-time PCR of different tissues in naturally infected M. rosenbergii showed that hematopoietic tissue contained the highest DIV1 load with a relative abundance of 25.4 ± 16.9%. Hepatopancreas and muscle contained the lowest DIV1 loads with relative abundances of 2.44 ± 1.24% and 2.44 ± 2.16%, respectively. The above results verified that DIV1 is the pathogen causing white head in M. rosenbergii. M. nipponense and Pr. clarkii are also species susceptible to DIV1.