Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that has the potential to produce almost any three-dimensional (3D) metallic part, even those with complicated shapes. Throughout the SLM process, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal powder plays a significant role in maintaining the product quality during 3D printing. Thus, it is crucial for 3D-printing manufacturers to determine the thermal behavior over the SLM process. However, it is a significant challenge to accurately determine the large temperature gradient and the melt pool size using only experiments. Therefore, the use of both experimental investigations and numerical analysis can assist in characterizing the temperature evaluation and the melt pool size in a more effective manner. In this study, 3D finite element analysis applying a moving volumetric Gaussian laser heat source was used to analyze the temperature profile on the powder bed and the resultant melt pool size throughout the SLM process. In the experiments, a TELOPS FAST-IR (M350) thermal imager was applied to determine the temperature profile of the melting pool and powder bed along the scanning direction during the SLM fabrication using Ti6Al4V powder. The numerically calculated results were compared with the experimentally determined temperature distribution. The comparison showed that the calculated peak temperature for single- and multi-track by the developed thermal model was in good agreement with the experiment results. Secondly, the developed model was verified by comparing the melting pool size for various laser powers and scanning speeds with the experimentally measured melting pool size from the published literature. The developed model could predict the melt pool width (with 2–5% error) and melt pool depth (with 5–6% error).