The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increases gradually in Western countries with high need for novel therapeutic interventions. Mannich curcuminoids, C142 or C150 synthetized in our laboratory, have been tested for anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) induced colitis. Treatment with C142 or C150 reduced leukocyte infiltration to the submucosa and muscular propria of the inflamed gut. C142 or C150 rescued the loss of body weight and C150 decreased the weight of standard colon preparations proportional with 20% less tissue oedema. Both C142 and C150 curcumin analogues caused 25% decrease in the severity of colonic inflammation and haemorrhagic lesion size. Colonic MPO (myeloperoxidase) enzyme activity as an indicator of intense neutrophil infiltration was 50% decreased either by C142 or C150 Mannich curcuminoids. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) co-treatment with Mannich curcuminoids inhibited NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) activity on a concentration-dependent manner in an NF-κB-driven luciferase expressing reporter cell line. Co-treatment with LPS and curcuminoids, C142 or C150, resulted in NF-κB inhibition with 3.57 μM or 1.6 μM half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values, respectively. C150 exerted a profound inhibition of the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) upon LPS stimulus. Mannich curcuminoids reported herein possess a powerful anti-inflammatory activity.