In this study, the Value Added Intellectual Capital (VAICTM) and Modified Value Added Intellectual Capital (MVAICTM) models are utilized to analyze intellectual capital (IC) performance of the textile industry in China and South Korea during 2012–2017, and measure the contribution of IC sub-components to companies’ performance. The results show that the aggregate IC positively affects earnings, profitability, and productivity of textile companies in China and South Korea. At the sub-components level, the contribution of capital employed efficiency (CEE) is the largest, followed by structural capital efficiency (SCE), and relational capital efficiency (RCE) in China’s textile industry. In addition, Korea’s textile industry relies heavily on CEE and human capital efficiency (HCE), while the contribution of RCE is relatively small. Finally, relevant policies are put forward to promote the sustainable development of the textile industry in these two emerging markets.