Functional reconstitution of vacuolar H+-ATPase from Vo proton channel and mutant V1-ATPase provides insight into the mechanism of reversible disassembly [Membrane Biology] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)
The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase; V1Vo-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump that acidifies subcellular compartments in all eukaryotic organisms. V-ATPase activity is regulated by reversible disassembly into autoinhibited V1-ATPase and Vo proton channel subcomplexes, a process that is poorly understood on the molecular level. V-ATPase is a rotary motor, and recent structural analyses have revealed different rotary states for disassembled V1 and Vo, a mismatch that is likely responsible for their inability to reconstitute into holo V-ATPase in vitro. Here, using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that a key impediment for binding of V1 to Vo is the conformation of the inhibitory C-terminal domain of subunit H (HCT). Using biolayer interferometry and biochemical analyses of purified mutant V1-ATPase and Vo proton channel reconstituted into vacuolar lipid-containing nanodiscs, we further demonstrate that disruption of HCT`s V1-binding site facilitates assembly of a functionally coupled and stable V1Vo-ATPase. Unlike WT, this mutant enzyme was resistant to MgATP hydrolysis-induced dissociation, further highlighting HCT`s role in the mechanism of V-ATPase regulation. Our findings provide key insight into the molecular events underlying regulation of V-ATPase activity by reversible disassembly.