As one of the “three major strategies” for China’s regional development, the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) is under severe pressure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities, and driving factors of carbon emissions based on energy consumption and related economic development data in the YREB over the 2005–2016 11-year period. Using the Stochastic Impacts Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model, we empirically test the factors affecting YREB carbon emissions and key drivers in various provinces and municipalities. The main findings are as follows. First, per capita GDP, both industrial structure and energy intensity have positive effects on increasing carbon emissions. Second, per capita GDP and energy intensity have the largest impact on the increase of carbon emissions, and the urbanization rate has the largest inhibitory effect on carbon emissions.