IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 1420: Effects of Oenanthe javanica on Nitrogen Removal in Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands under Low-Temperature Conditions (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
To investigate the role and microorganism-related mechanisms of macrophytes and assess the feasibility of Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. in promoting nitrogen removal in free-water surface constructed wetlands (FWS-CWS) under low temperatures (<10 °C), pilot-scale FWS-CWS, planted with O. javanica, were set up and run for batch wastewater treatment in eastern China during winter. The presence of macrophytes observably improved the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen (65%–71%) and total nitrogen (41%–48%) (p < 0.05), with a sharp increase in chemical oxygen demand concentrations (about 3–4 times). Compared to the unplanted systems, the planted systems not only exhibited higher richness and diversity of microorganisms, but also significantly higher abundances of bacteria, ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA), nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), dissimilatory cd1-containing nitrite reductase gene (nirS), and dissimilatory copper-containing nitrite reductase gene (nirK) in the substrate. Meanwhile, the analysis of the microbial community composition further revealed significant differences. The results indicate that enhanced abundances of microorganisms, and the key functional genes involved with nitrogen metabolism in the planted systems played critical roles in nitrogen removal from wastewater in FWS-CWS. Furthermore, abundant carbon release from the wetland macrophytes could potentially aid nitrogen removal in FWS-CWS during winter.