China is experiencing substantial land-use and land-cover change (LUCC), especially in coastal regions, and these changes have caused many ecological problems. This study selected a typical region of Jiangsu Province and completed a comprehensive and detailed spatial-temporal analysis regarding LUCC and the driving forces. The results show that the rate of land-use change has been accelerating, with land-use experiencing the most substantial changes from 2005 to 2010 for most land-use types and the period from 2010 to 2015 showing a reversed changing trend. Built-up land that occupies cropland was the main characteristic of land-use type change. Southern Jiangsu and the coastline region presented more obvious land-use changes. Social-economic development was the main factor driving increased built-up land expansion and cropland reduction. In addition, land-use policy can significantly affect land-use type changes. For land-cover changes, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the land area without land-use type changes increased by 0.005 per year overall. Areas with increasing trends accounted for 82.43% of the total area. Both precipitation and temperature displayed more areas that were positively correlated with NDVI, especially for temperature. Temperature correlated more strongly with NDVI change than precipitation for most vegetation types. Our study can be used as a reference for land-use managers to ensure sustainable and ecological land-use and coastal management.