Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polymer of great interest as a substitute for conventional plastics, which are becoming an enormous environmental problem. PHB can be produced directly from CO2 in photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. The model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 produces PHB under conditions of nitrogen starvation. However, it is so far unclear which metabolic pathways provide the precursor molecules for PHB synthesis during nitrogen starvation. In this study, we investigated if PHB could be derived from the main intracellular carbon pool, glycogen. A mutant of the major glycogen phosphorylase, GlgP2 (slr1367 product), was almost completely impaired in PHB synthesis. Conversely, in the absence of glycogen synthase GlgA1 (sll0945 product), cells not only produced less PHB, but were also impaired in acclimation to nitrogen depletion. To analyze the role of the various carbon catabolic pathways (EMP, ED and OPP pathways) for PHB production, mutants of key enzymes of these pathways were analyzed, showing different impact on PHB synthesis. Together, this study clearly indicates that PHB in glycogen-producing Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells is produced from this carbon-pool during nitrogen starvation periods. This knowledge can be used for metabolic engineering to get closer to the overall goal of a sustainable, carbon-neutral bioplastic production.